Completed Dress and Textiles, Portraits: British 18th C, Portraits: British 19th C, Scotland: Artists and Subjects 29 Which Lord Troup is this? Can it be dated from the sitter's plaid?

Francis Garden (1721–1793), Lord Gardenstone, 5th of Troup, in his Kilt and Plaid
Topic: Subject or sitter

The outfit depicted is typical early-Victorian Highland dress, c.1850, so the portrait cannot possibly depict Lord Gardenstone, 5th of Troup. He appears to have died without issue. If this shows Lord Gardenstone then it must be a later one.

From this genealogy: it would appear that there is only one candidate, Francis William Garden, 9th of Troup (1840–1895).

The sitter looks to be about 18–20, so the portrait is probably nearer 1855–1860.

The collection comments:

'The information we have is that this is the 5th Lord Troup. I am interested in your comments on the representation of the plaid which is very useful to date a painting. The painting is attributed to "circle of" Tilly Kettle and I have been trying to compare the portrait with known work by Kettle. However, other portraits by other artists including:

This Scottish National Gallery portrait of Sir Alexander Macdonald, (1744–1795):

shows a romantic figure within a romantic landscape and wearing a belted plaid. The age of Lord Troup (if it is he) appears to be no older than 30 which puts the painting at around 1750.

There appears to be a variety of ways of wearing the kilt and plaid, here shown with what appears to be a black velvet doublet in a shorter version of the longer jacket worn by Bonnie Prince Charlie.

There are also Garden of Troup records held by Aberdeen City and Aberdeenshire archives, one of which is a family tree, which might suggest other Lord Troups as candidates. I think this is worthy of greater discussion.'

Peter Eslea MacDonald, Entry reviewed by Art UK

Completed, Outcome

This discussion is now closed. The title has been amended to ‘Probably Francis Garden-Campbell, 8th of Troup (1818–1848)’, the picture dated to the 1840s and the attribution changed to ‘unknown artist’. A possible direction for research on the artist would be to look at the circle of Sir Francis Grant.

Thank you to everyone who contributed to the discussion. To anyone viewing this discussion for the first time, please see below for all the comments that led to this conclusion.


Barbara Bryant,

It's certainly a 19C picture. Nothing to do with Tilly Kettle.

Scott Thomas Buckle,

I agree with Peter that this portrait cannot possibly be of the 5th Lord Troup, nor does it date from the period that Tilly Kettle was active as a portraitist. To me, it appears closer in style to portraits of the 1830s and 1840s, possibly by someone in the circle of Sir Francis Grant PRA (1803-1878). If the identification that the sitter is one of the Lords of Troup is to be believed, then Francis Garden-Campbell, 8th Lord of Troup (1818-1848) seems the more likely candidate. He married in July 1839 at the age of 21, which looks about the right date for this portrait.

Christopher Foley,

Tilly Kettle (1735-1786) had been dead for some 60 years when this was painted in the mid C19th. The cap badges on the sitter's bonnet are unclear, but look to be possibly an Elephant and a Rampant Lion. If so, the former might the badge of the 78th Regiment of Foot (sometimes called the Ross-shire buffs) and the Rampant Lion, especially if on a saltire, has many Highland regiment connections. Attached is a portrait of the early 1840's of an officer in uniform with a similar badge (bottom left). But the sitter in this SNT portrait is not apparently in uniform, so the badges could glance back at earlier service. Could we have a higher resolution image please ?

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Barbara Bryant,

Christopher's comment makes sense. If one is to determine what the details of the uniform mean, then a higher resolution jpeg will be needed. If the collection agrees to this request it would be a great help. Any information on the back of the painting might also yield a clue. As Scott notes, the style and type of sitter is characteristic of Francis Grant's work.

Kieran Owens,

The double barrel musket was first introduced in Scotland for deerstalking, in the 1830s, and as an exclusively sporting gun, as opposed to a military weapon. The first double barrel shotgun was invented in 1875. Depending on what the gun the subject in this painting is deemed to be holding in his right hand, the work must have been executed after either the 1830s or 1875. An expert gunsmith or dealer might be able to identify the age and make of the gun from the distinctive sight (if such be it) which can be see just above the subject's right-hand fingers, as enlarged on the attached image.

Also, the elaborately carved classical antler-handle knife, showing a stag being pursued by a dog, possibly in ivory inlay, might also help to date the painting.

And finally, are the young man's left-hand finger rings of any significance?

Rather than being a portrait with military connections, this painting's subject looks more like a young man with big-game highland sports on his mind.

Osmund Bullock,

Just to clear up a couple of misconceptions. There has never been an inheritable peerage of Gardenstone - Lord Gardenstone (or -stoun) was the nominal title conferred on Francis Garden on his judicial appointment as a Lord of Session in 1764, and ceased to exist on his death in 1793. There has also never been a peerage of 'Lord Troup', only the Lairdship of that Ilk - essentially something that goes with ownership of the property. In times past it therefore usually passed down as if it *were* a title, but it's not - when the property is bought or sold, the Lairdship goes with it...a bit like the archaic English title Lord of the Manor, in fact. The medieval form 'Lord of Troup' is sometimes still found, but is generally discouraged as both misleading and anachronistic. And 'Lord Troup' is, and always has been quite wrong.

Osmund Bullock,

[Sorry, Kieran, this was written before I read your last, and overlaps slightly.]
As others have said, this portrait is far too late for Lord Gardenstone. It is not, I think, a military portrait - that's a sporting gun, not a weapon of war - and I'm fairly sure I've identified the two 'badges' on the sitter's proto-Glengarry cap. Though we will need a higher-res to be sure, I believe they are the two crests of the Campbell-Garden family - 'a boar passant argent' (for Garden of Troup) and 'a demi-lion rampant, holding in its dexter paw a heart royally crowned' (for Campbell of Glenlyon, though the last detail is all but invisible). For those not up on heraldry, the arms with both crests are fortuitously shown on Plate 114 of Burke's 'Heraldic Illustrations' of 1846: . I am also attaching a composite of the pair of crests from both book and bonnet (tweaked) - the latter very small, unfortunately.

It's also possible that at higher-res the scroll beneath the crests may reveal one or other of the two family mottoes. I think, too, that the tartan shown may (if the blue has faded) be intended for that of Campbell, though the pale check over it suggests the (unauthorized) one for Campbell of Argyll, technically not the right family - the Glenlyon Campbells descended from the Campbells of Glenorchy, only distant kinsmen of the Dukes of Argyll. Or it may be C. of Breadalbane, who were slightly (but not much) closer relations.

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Osmund Bullock,

Sorry, for Campbell-Garden above, read Garden-Campbell.

Osmund Bullock,

There is disagreement about whether it was Peter Garden of Dalgety (through whose wife, Katherine Balneaves, Glenlyon was inherited) or his son Francis, 6th of Troup, who changed the name and arms to Garden-Campbell. It's more likely to have been Francis, as it was he, not his father Peter who actually inherited Glenlyon - the last Campbell laird, Dr David Campbell, did not die until 1806, when Peter had been dead for 21 years. In any case it doesn't matter for our purposes - by the time this portrait was painted the family name and arms were Garden-Campbell, and continued so until 1885 when Francis, 9th of Troup, sold the estate and lairdship to Sir Donald Currie. See 'The Lairds of Glenlyon' (1886) and also .

Osmund Bullock,

Finally, I tend to agree with Scott that this is much more likely to be the c.21 year-old Francis Garden-Campbell, 8th of Troup (born 1818) than his son the 9th Laird born in 1840 (and who sold Glenlyon and reverted to plain 'Garden'). To me it has very much the feel of a portrait of c.1840, not one of c.1860. Like Kieran, I note that the sitter apparently has a ring on the third finger of his left hand - whether or not this held the same betrothal/marital significance for a Scottish man of the early/mid C19th as it certainly did for a English woman at the same period I do not know.

Osmund Bullock,

Peter, that's a most useful image for period comparison - and note that the outfit of John Ramsay L'Amy also displays his family crest, though on the leather flap at the top of his sporran - a wrist and hand clasping a crozier ( #4). I think it likely that these crests were made of pressed sheet-metal (silver or silvered brass), back-filled with lead to hold fixing pins - see . I own identical C19th armorial ones that were uses as decorative fittings on leather horse harness.

PS I see you are a tartan expert - apologies for my rather inexpert musings on Campbell ones above.

Peter Eslea MacDonald,

Osmund, yes, you're right about the sporran construction. It was common practice during the mid-19th century.

It's quite likely that the tartan is meant to be but the execution is far to poor to be certain unlike other portraits such as the one of Ramsay.

This discussion, “Which Lord Troup is this? Can it be dated from the sitter's plaid?”, ranges across four different Groups and has attracted 14 comments, dating to just 20 and 21 February 2018. It concerns a portrait at Drum Castle (NT for Scotland). To take the questions posed in the discussion in reverse order:

Can the portrait be dated from the sitter's plaid? There is general agreement in the discussion that the portrait, in costume and in style, dates to about 1850 as Peter proposes, and perhaps to the 1840s although it could be a little earlier or later. So clearly the portrait cannot belong to the circle of Tilly Kettle, who died in 1786. It is closer to the work of Sir Francis Grant, as proposed by Scott, but it is not, I think, from his hand.

Which Lord Troup is this? As has been pointed out in the discussion, the designation “Lord Troup” is misleading. Rather, the phrase “Lord of Troup” could be used but the discussion suggests that it is anachronistic. It was not a peerage title but associated with land ownership. The crests shown in the portrait can be associated with the Garden-Campbell family, according to Osmund’s research, which is important confirmation that we are exploring the right area. Of the various members of the family, the possible 1840s date for the portrait would fit best with Francis Garden-Campbell, 8th of Troup, as suggested by Scott and Osmund. He married in 1839 and the portrait may possibly have been painted shortly thereafter.

Subject to the agreement of the other three Group Leaders and of the NT for Scotland, I propose that this discussion, dating back to two days in 2018, should shortly be closed unless further evidence can be produced. The recommendations could be as follows:

Sitter: Probably Francis Garden-Campbell, 8th of Troup (1818-48)
Artist: Unknown artist. Or, if a name is wanted, Circle of Sir Francis Grant.
Date: 1840s (?)

Lou and Michelle

Before approaching the NT for Scotland, would you be kind enough to give your thoughts re: Jacob Simon's summary and recommendations of 14/10/20, and that we should bring this discussion now to a close. Thank you.

I am afraid that i cannot date the sitter to his plaid; however, my eye tells me that this is a young man (no more than 25) and that the painting is in the Romantic style. However, if this is the 5th Lord Troup, that would place the painting's date to be around 1745 and, stylistically, i don't think this is correct. To my eye, the painting is c.1820-5. Therefore, this would mean that the subject is probably NOT the 5th Lord Troup. I am afraid that there is no other information in the record.

Lou Taylor, Dress and Textiles,

THE very best person on tartans in Prof HUGH CHEAPE, Univ of the Highlands and Islands..[]

My guess on date of painting is late 1840s and 1850s but I am guessing...

Lou Taylor

Peter Eslea MacDonald,

We seem to be going around in circles. This is very definitely c1840-50 and therefore the suject cannot be the 5th Lord Troup.

Osmund Bullock,

I am glad the National Trust has joined the discussion, but disappointed that they continue to use the incorrect and misleading term 'Lord Troup' after previous comments; in fact everything they mention has already been covered in more detail above, as Peter says. I might add that (again as previously mentioned) Peter is a tartan expert himself, so Prof Cheape's input may possibly be surplus to requirements!

What would still be helpful (nearly three years on) is a higher-res image of the sitter's Glengarry and its badges - though I'm pretty sure they are the two crests of the Campbell-Garden family (see comment 21/02/2018 03:01), it would be good to confirm that.

In my post of 14 October, I suggested that recommendations could be as follows:

Sitter: Probably Francis Garden-Campbell, 8th of Troup (1818-48)
Artist: Unknown artist. Or, if a name is wanted, Circle of Sir Francis Grant.
Date: 1840s (?)

Since then Peter, who proposed the discussion in 2018, has expressed his agreement, Lou as group leader, Dress and Textiles has responded, as has the NTS. On the basis that we have answered the questions posed at the outset, I recommend that we now close this discussion.

Osmund Bullock,

Indeed. And sorry for muddying the waters by, for the second time, transposing Garden & Campbell in the sitter's surname.

Someone from the collection commented on 11/11 that 'the subject is probably NOT the 5th Lord Troup', but did not respond to Jacob's suggestion that it is probably Francis Garden-Campbell, 8th of Troup (1818-1848).

There's nothing I can do until the collection tells Art UK, either here or by email, whether or not they accept the proposed changes to the attribution and title, and the circa date.

In March the NTS advised me that a designated contact would handle all enquiries and updates. I contacted them about this discussion on 27/10, but have had no reply. Thanks very much, I look forward to hearing.

The image of the cap badges isn't great, but the knife handle is slightly clearer than in the image Kieran was able to obtain from Art UK. I'll give everyone a chance to see these before closing the discussion.

The two Troup mottoes in Burke, to which Osmund earlier referred (21/02/2018 03:01), are - above the arms and below the boar and lion badges of the full achievement - 'Quae recta sequor', and below the shield 'Vires animat virtus'. The first word on the cap-badge image above looks more like 'Vires' than 'Quae' pending anything clearer.

Osmund Bullock,

Thanks for those, Marion; and I agree with Pieter's reading of the first word on the motto scroll.