Coastal Landscape
Topic: Artist

Is this painting by one of the Belgian artists who were refugees in Britain in the First World War, and whose work was shown in a special display of their paintings and other works in the Royal Academy in its War Relief Exhibition in 1915? Could it depict the Welsh coast, such as Mwnt Beach on the southern end of Cardigan Bay, as some of them worked in Wales?

Could it be by Valerius de Saedeleer (1867–1941), or by an artist close to him? See 'Art in Exile. Flanders, Wales and The First World War', Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent; Hannema-de Stuers Foundation, Heino; and National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, 2002, especially pp. 135–46. See no. 44 ‘Spring near the Ystwyth’ and no. 50 ‘Landscape in Wales’, both in private collections.

The British painter who comes closest to this in style is Malcolm Drummond – see his 1918 ‘Fields and Road, Penn Street’ in Southampton City Art Gallery.
If by Drummond, the coast could be the north west of Ireland, as he painted in Donegal in 1918.

The collection comments: ‘The painting was considered as an outside possibility during identification of the eight oil canvasses that came into the collection in 1972 from the Executors of Dame Laura Knight, R.A.. Knight had painted a number of scenes along the Cornish coast during the 1920s and 30s, such as Autumn Sunlight, Sennen Cove (1920-5; Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery). A colour reproduction of the canvas was sent to Rodney Brangwyn for identification. Mr Brangwyn curated a retrospective exhibition of Dame Laura Knight's work at the Upper Grosvenor Gallery in 1969. He knew the artist and the contents of her studio very well. He replied: “The coastal scene without figures is more like a Harold Knight composition, although I imagine that the brushwork (which I cannot see in a reproduction) has much more the vigour of Laura.” In fact, the brushwork is not vigorous and the paint is laid on instead in smooth patches. Coastal Landscape is not now thought to be one of the eight canvasses by Laura Knight and its maker remains unknown.’

The PCF image of this painting is attached.
Valerius de Saedeleer (1867–1941)
Malcom Drummond (1880–1945)

Martin Hopkinson, Entry reviewed by Art UK

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Completed, Outcome

This discussion is now closed. The painting has been tentatively attributed to Hubert Lindsay Wellington and the title has been updated to ‘Coastal Landscape (Morte Point, North Devon)’.

Thank you to everyone who contributed to the discussion. To anyone viewing this discussion for the first time, please see below for all the comments that led to this conclusion.


Peter Nahum,

My first thought was Keith Henderson, but he is more precise - the image is hard to read that small

Michael Westcott,

Looks remarkably simlar to Morte Point at the north end of Woolacombe Bay in north Devon, if a certain amount of artistic licence is assumed, possibly before the later development of the village and at low tide.
Attached is a view taken from Google streetview looking NW toward the bay on the road leading SE from Woolacombe (Challacombe Hill) at OSGR 46400 42630. If correct, the painting might have been taken from a point on higher ground above that road.

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H Day,

Llangrannog or Cwmtydu perhaps?, but from a specially chosen viewpoint, rather than a quick snap taken from the footpath. There are one or two Google images that do look similar.

Maggs Barker,

Rhossili bay looking north along the beach. Unfortunately all the images on google (see attached photo) are taken from the path down to wormhead and appears in the painting as the left hand foreground.This picture is a more unusual,very much like the view from about 500yards to the right of the google photos where the path from Rhissili villages heads down to the beach. Well worth a visit!

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Thank you to everyone for your comments. Peter, first thoughts are often accurate and I don't think that Keith Henderson was always more precise (as in the background landscape of 'Wings over Scotland', 1940). What are your thoughts about Malcolm Drummond?
Regarding the location: Morte Point looks as if it could be a potential location, as the point has the right shape.

Kieran Owens,

Marion, would you be able to ask of the Royal Academy if it was or is their policy to only acquire works that had featured in their annual or Summer shows, or possibly that originated from their school system? Their reply might usefully narrow down the target area of enquiry as to the origin of this work and its purchase for or gift to their collection.

Martin Hopkinson,

Sometimes pictures are left behind by artists after exhibitions - and then at length enter collections

Kieran Owens,

Attached are two different views of Morte Point by way of suggesting that this is the correct location of this painting. The annotated image is just a suggestion as to what pints might correspond. The tidal movement exposes less of the beach on the satellite view.

It might be that the view was painted from closer than Challacombe Hill and could be from a view along Sandy Lane. The question is where were all the houses of Woolacombe and surrounding area?Was this painting executed before there was any such development, or is it an idyllic interpretation of the place.

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Kieran Owens,

Judging by the (admittedly politically incorrect) description of Wollacombe Sands by "A Roving Correspondent", as it appeared in the Western Mail of Friday 2nd September 1870, the shore line by that date seems to have as yet been engulfed by holiday homes and the like. If a record of the main development (say by the 1890s) of the village could be found it might provide a small window of possibilities as to when the picture was painted.

Kieran Owens,

The Western Times of Friday 17th August 1883 reports that an application to the District Highway Board at Barnstable, on behalf of Lord Fortescue and the Trustees of the late Sir Bruce Chichester's will, asked for the Board's permission to widen the road that led from the Morthoe railway station to Wollacombe Sands, on the granting of which the road (now known as The Esplanade), would be dedicated to the public.

This act, as may be subsequently deduced, most likely triggered the beginning of the rapid development of the village of Wollacombe. For instance, bathing machines at Wollacombe were advertised for the first time in June 1886, and permission for a provisional premises licence, for the about-to-be-named Shakespeare Hotel, was granted in September of that same year.

In September of 1888, reference was made in the Devon Gazette to the "new road leading from Morthoe railway station to Wollacombe Sands".

On Thursday 12th November 1891, the North Devon Journal announced that "There will be opened for Divine worship on Tuesday next an iron church which has ben erected at Wollacombe for the purpose of meeting a need which has arisen as a consequence of the rapid development of this remote portion of a picturesque and pushing (sic) parish."

From all of the above, as a consequence of the arrival of the railways and of various highway improvements, which facilitated better access to the unspoilt beaches of the north Devon coast, it would appear that the pure natural landscape of Wollacombe, with its donkey tracks leading from the hills to the shore up to the early 1880s, was utterly transformed by the beginning of the 1890s.

In fact, the transitional point for the development of Wollacombe can be clearly understood from the attached notice that appeared in the North Devon Journal of Thursday 29th December 1892.

In its edition of Thursday 6th April 1893, the same paper ran an additional repot that succinctly describes Wollacombe's imminent transformation to a thriving resort. It is also attached, for all ArtUK's contributors' consideration.

Given the complete absence of any human habitation in this painting, if it does represent a view towards Morte Point from somewhere above Wollacombe, then it possibly dates more likely from before or up to the very early 1880s rather than from any time after that period.

Kieran, This is the RA's reply to your question about its formal acquisitions policy:

'Your enquiry about the Coastal Landscape discussion has reached me. To the best of my knowledge, the RA didn’t have a formal acquisitions policy at the time this work would have been made. Works by Academicians, students and Summer Exhibition exhibitors account for the majority of paintings in the RA collection, and so would be the obvious lines of enquiry to follow, but I wouldn’t want to rule out the possibility that this painting does not fall into any of these categories.' James Finch (Curatorial Assistant, Collections)

Kieran Owens,

Marion, thank you. If, therefore, the RA collection has in the main been acquired via members, students and the Summer Exhibition, it might be worth noting that a work by James S. Hill, of Ivy bank, Hampstead, entitled 'Morte Point, North Devon', was exhibited as entry number 119 in the 1880 summer exhibition. The Exeter & Plymouth Gazette of Saturday 1st May carried a description of the picture as "a scene of dull green rocks and a dull grey sea; a careful study of Nature's varying aspects." I know that is not necessarily what is on offer here, and I have seen other works by Hill online, though none has the freshness and clear and simple lines of that of this discussion. However, on the basis of my posting above, the date of 1880 does fall within the period of time when Wollacombe and its Sands would have been relatively unspoilt by development.

Michael Westcott,

Further to the above comments, the extensive"development" of Woolacombe and the Esplanade appears to have occurred between 1890 and 1905, as is illustrated by the OS maps of those years (scans attached).

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Tim Williams,

I really don't think this is Woolacombe. I live about 10 minutes away and surf there regularly. There quite are a few Victorian/Edwardian villas along the Esplanade that would be visible and the hill gradiant is nothing like in this picture.

I can't place this view anywhere on the North Devon coast.

Andrew Chamberlain,

If this is a view towards Morte Point in the late 19th century, then it may be pertinent that the only buildings above Grunta Beach at that time were Victoria House and the adjacent Alexandra Place (subsequently the Mortenhoe Hotel - see attached extract from the OS 1st edition 1:2500 map). There appears to be a rectangular dab of paint at the correct location on the painting that may correspond to these buildings.

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Barbara Bryant,

If it is known that the painting under discussion came to the RA from the Estate of Laura Knight, and she has been ruled out as the painter, then has Harold Knight also been definitively ruled out? He too paints landscapes from a high viewpoint, as in the image attached and in Sennen Cove was the frequent subject for both Laura and Harold Knight. This might be the obvious suggestion but could it be that place?
Also it looks far more like a painting of the first half of the 20th century, rather than the last decades of the 19th century.

Osmund Bullock,

Barbara, is that right? The phrasing in the first sentence of the RA's statement in the intro is admittedly confusing; but I think what follows (and the recent further statement from them posted by Marion) must mean that though at one stage it was thought possible that this painting was one of the eight canvases by Laura Knight that came from her Estate in 1972, it is no longer thought to be one of them.

My reading of the email chain concurs with Osmund’s although I’m pleased that Barbara brings us back to a consideration of the possible author of the present landscape. We all may well have thumbed through Oil Paint and Grease Paint and The Magic of a Line hoping that the name of an artist-acquaintance might solve this problem.
Looking at it one wonders why it should be so intractable. A work of such considerable sophistication should be easy to identify on stylistic grounds. I am surprised that none of the Camden Town/Bloomsbury experts has weighed in on it. Drummond is a good suggestion, but one might look at Bevan or de Karlowska for artists who sketch out a landscape in line before applying fairly dry pigment. However none of these seems to quite fit. Since this first appeared I’ve been looking a Hubert Lindsay Wellington – an interesting character whose work combines a certain dry academicism with a modern sense of the abstract. It’s probably not by him, but clearly we need to find a painter – English possibly rather than Belgian – who if not in the same room as Laura Knight, sometime around 1920, was at least au fait with recent developments in painting after the Post-Impressionist show of 1910.

Barbara Bryant,

Thanks, Osmund. Yes, my mistaken misreading. Apropos Kenneth's remarks, totally agree it is a sophisticated work and hopefully it can be attributed with eyes more expert than my own in this area to comment.

Martin Hopkinson,

Walter Bayes is a very good idea- it has the air, if British, of an artist on the edge of the Camden Town Group.

Kieran Owens,

Marion, as the question inevitably wheels around at this stage in the guessing game, is there an available shot of the back of this work, one which that might provide further clues as to its attribution? If it was exhibited at the RA, might it still retain a catalogue identity number?

Kieran Owens,

Regarding Maggs Barker's suggestion above of Rhossili Bay. I believe that the hills fall away there much earlier and the northern tip of the bay is more definitely divided from the mainland than is depicted in this discussion's painting.

Martin Hopkinson,

In 1918 and 1919 the Leicester Galleries held one man show of his paintings. Sickert wrote in the catalogue to the former.
The Carfax Gallery had one man shows of his work in 1913 and 1915.
Of course he exhibited with other dealers and artists organisations
Wendy Baron and Richard Shone might be able to venture opinions

Martin Hopkinson,

Bayes painted the coast of Devon and of Cardigan Bay - paricularly in the Barmouth area c. 1917-9. Unfortunately most of his titles are generic. His October 1913 Carfax Gallery exhibition included The Harbour, Salcombe as no 9 and 3 paintings of sands and dunes [nos 2, 22 and 6]
His March 1918 Leicester Gallery show included 9 Devonshire coast scenery and paintings of the Barmouth Coast
His June - July 1919 Leicester Gallery exhibition included
24 The red beach
11 Across the beach
40 Across the beaches
I have not seen the catalogue of his memorial exhibition at the Leicester Galleries

Coincidentally , Laura Knight's February 1918 Leicester Galleries exhibition immediately preceded Bayes March 1918 exhibition there

Martin Hopkinson,

Bayes's exhibits with the London Group 1913-15 should be checked - also his paintings at the Allied Artists' Association.

Martin Hopkinson,

Bayes' 1932 A Painter's Baggage is probably worth a look

Martin Hopkinson,

A Painter's Baggage does not cover any of Bayes' British experiences

Martin Hopkinson,

As Kenneth McConkey suggests above Hubert Wellington , the rather forgotten Gloucester painter,is worth considering. As well as the paintings on,one can look at 3 with the dealer Louise Kosman []. He became Principal of Edinburgh College of Art
Agnews staged a retrospective in 1963, and Gloucester City Museum and Art Gallery a memorial exhibition in 1968 - the catalogue of the latter a publication hard to find outside Gloucester

Martin Hopkinson,

Also mentioned to me by Kenneth McConkey is Charles Henry Collins Baker, much better known as an art historian of British art, and as a curator , but who was very much his own man as a painter - see Manchester City Art Gallery's The Bay
The fullest account of him can be found in ODNB.
He exhibited at the RA and the NEAC [1909-16] , of which he eventually became the Hon Sec [1921-5]
As a painter, his friendship with his boss at the National Gallery, Charles Holmes , needs investigating.

Patrick Bond,

The style is reminiscent of Charles Ginner

Andrew Chamberlain,

The case made previously that this is a view across Woolacombe Sand to Morte Point is a strong one (see attached image from Google Earth).

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Michael Westcott,

Further to my suggestion (21 Nov 18 and 6 Dec 18) and that of others that the view is of Morte Point in North Devon, I was in that area this weekend and sought what I think to be the original viewpoint. Attached is a photo taken from a point in a field at OS NGR SS462425 (see ) just west of Challacombe Hill (lane) facing toward the Point, in rather rougher weather.

The similarity of the profiles of Potter’s Hill on the left, the Point and adjacent hills, the bay, the beach and Challacombe Hill lane in the foreground (now much obscured by vegetation but just discernable in the photo) indicates without much doubt (in my personal opinion), that this view is that of the painting.

The vertical profiles of the painting do appear to be somewhat exaggerated but that may result from a bit of artistic licence to increase the dramatic effect (quite common), as might be the omission of any buildings then present. The beach in the middle ground has since been “developed” into a promenade and car park.

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Martin Hopkinson,

Morte Point certainly looks the most likely view of those suggested.

Michael Westcott's photo does look convincing: geography tends to be more reliable that artistic renderings of it and one only has to look at Turner (inter alia) for examples of how vertical heights of cliffs etc tend to get exaggerated for effect. Here the 'rounding-upwards' is very consistent across the whole and - especially if studio work, not 'plein air' - would also be understandable for the sort of stylised represenattion it is, working from field sketches, memory and perhaps a degree of editing out of buildings. Looking for hands with Devon connections may continue to be the most productive line.

Michael Westcott's photo is 100% convincing to me. As he has shown, the promontory centre right was developed around 1900. There are no houses on the 1888 6" OS map; a new road, 'Parade Road', and one house and an inn (presumably later the hotel) on the 1896 revision of the 1" map; and half a dozen houses and the hotel on the 1903 revision of the 25" map. This does not of course prove the painting was made before 1900 - stylistically it must surely be a bit later. I agree with others who have pointed out that the artist has probably ignored modern houses; the village of Woolacombe is in any case conveniently and probably deliberately hidden behind the foreground hill.

What, then, is the best description? What generally shows is Grunta Beach (the wide middle-ground stretch) and Morte Point at the north end of Woolacombe Bay: perhaps 'Coast Scene (Woolacombe Bay and Morte Point, North Devon)?

Kieran Owens,

When deciding on the location of this scene as Morte Point and Grunta Beach, please do also re/consider my composites as posted above on the 05/12/2018.

Kieran makes an interesting point. It is not clear to me which is correct, given the artist's inevitable simplifications of the landscape. I have found this aeriel view which makes an interesting comparison but still does not unambigously resolve the issue:

Any new title should not be too long and precise, something like 'Morte Point, Devon, from the South' would probably do, but ultimately it is up to the RA.

The title could stay as it is, though clarificaction for search/indexing purposes would help, but up to the collection of course:
'Coastal Landscape (Woolacombe Bay and Morte Point, N. Devon)'

Kenneth McConkey suggested that it is probably not by Hubert Lindsay Wellington, but is anyone able to pursue Kenneth's other idea of Charles Henry Collins Baker?

Albert Goodwin, mentioned above, doesn't look like the right artist to me. I agree with Martin and Grant that it's worth looking further among the Camden Town Group and circle. Historical members of the London Group are listed here:

Tim Williams,

Well those comparisons are convincing. The artist has ignored all buildings and made the hills much steeper.

Not many painters of this ilk came to North Devon; Ethelbert White and Harry Phelan Gibb both had homes here in the 1930s/40s, Bevan, Munnings and Fred Hall also visited but that's about it.

As to authorship, I suggest Henry Lamb (1883-1960) should be given serious consideration. His paintings have the same touch of the brush in some cases and a similar outlining of landscape features in others:

Moreover, Lamb was an ARA from 1940, an RA from 1949 and a Senior RA from 1960, exhibiting regularly at the Royal Academy -- which is not without relevance. Plus, he lived much of his life in Dorset (Poole) and Wiltshire (Coombe Bissett), which means that he might well have visited the north Devon coast, not so far away. The following is a Cornish subject:

Kieran Owens,

Lamb appears to use a much stronger palette and has a much less discipled hand then is evident in this painting. His sense of proportion and perspective also seem out of line. The trees and house, as well as the greenest field, in his "Duddon Valley, Cumbria" are especially worth noting in this regard. This discussion's work seems to have been executed by an artist of far more subtle and better controlled accomplishments.

A brief review of the Royal Academy's own collection, as recorded on Art UK, suggests that about three quarters of their paintings are by members or associates of the RA. However, in this particular case the painting appears to have come to the Academy from the estate of Dame Laura Knight, RA, though not painted by her, and thus the list of potential candidates is much larger. I have felt for some time that a contender could well be Walter Bayes (Marion also made this point). The colours of this work are very similar to Bayes from this period. I am mentioning this again now as I have just picked up on Martin's comments of 11th December 2018 and in particular his final paragraph which reads 'Coincidentally, Laura Knight's February 1918 Leicester Galleries exhibition immediately preceded Bayes March 1918 exhibition there'. If anyone has access to that Leicester Galleries catalogue of March 1918 we may be able to move this forward with firm evidence.

Jacinto Regalado,

Bayes is quite plausible, based on some of his landscapes on Art UK.

The information below is on the website of the Imperial War Museum following a search for Walter Bayes and confirms that he spent the summer of 1918 in Devon:

Bayes's 'The Underworld' (IWM:ART 935) was purchased for the Museum by Robert Ross from the Royal Academy's show in 1918. Bayes was then asked if he would be interested in working for the Ministry of Information, at which he proposed a subject of a torpedoed ship (IWM:ART 1234). As part of his research for the sea in this picture, Bayes spent summer 1918 in Devon. The picture was offered as a loan from the Ministry to the IWM's 'Sea Power' exhibition in 1918 but was declined on the grounds that it did not demonstrate sea power (36). The file also discusses damage to the other work by Bayes in the collection, IWM:ART 2573, caused by the damp conditions at Crystal Palace. On several occasions Bayes offered to make a replica of this work, but no money was available. Other matters include copyright, reproductions, and the conservation of 'The Underworld' in particular. There is a letter to Muirhead Bone (10).

Susan Hill,

It's a painting of Morte Point in North Devon, as seen from Challacombe Hill. The bay is called Morte Bay, although most people wrongly call it Woolacombe Bay. Locally if people speak about 'The Woolacombe Bay', or just 'The Bay' they mean the Woolacombe Bay Hotel - a lovely hotel.

There were lots of shipwrecks in this bay through the centuries!

No idea of the artist, sorry.

Sue Hill

Thanks for that though if you look back you'll see the discussion had finally worked its way round to concluding that was the case in mid/late 2019: Michael Westcott went so far as to go and take a confirmatory photo -see his note and attachment of 1/10/2019. The current suggestion for amending the title/ description of the picture to include maximum search terms remains 'Coastal Landscape (Woolacombe Bay and Morte Point, N. Devon)' but the outstanding matter is still that of reaching a firm conclusion on the artist.

Although we have reached a possible consensus on the location represented in this picture – the artist’s identity remains obscure and possibilities as various as Henry Lamb, Walter Bayes and Phelan Gibb have been considered.

The early Gibbs I have seen both on the web and in a private collection encourage me to discount him, while Bayes is obviously of the right period, but his compositions are normally busier and in small works the handling seems more fluid. Richard’s suggestion of Henry Lamb has great merit, in that Lamb, from the start of his career, avoided the brio of John, and painted in cloisonnes – blocks of colour encased in line. However, we can be fairly certain that this is neither a Breton nor an Irish coastal scene – Lamb’s pre-Great War haunts, and a simple landscape without figures would, for him, be fairly unusual.

I suggested two other possibilities – CH Collins Baker and Hubert Wellington. The first I discounted because although a strong linear structure characterises his early Welsh landscapes, his brushwork is broader, and palette more tonal than seems to be the case here. He was, in essence, a friend and follower of Charles Holmes.

The present coast scene seems to me to be the product of a Slade-trained painter working before the war, when a kind of Gauguin-esque academicism prevailed. A current saleroom image, for me at any rate, has brought Wellington back into the frame (enclosed). This picture was shown in 1986 in the New English Art Club Centenary Exhibition at Christie’s (no 178) as The Cornish Coast at Looe, and it dates from 1913-14. A close look at the illustration seems to indicate that the overlapping sections of foreground field suggest a palette, and dry application of small touches, similar to that of the Coastal Scene. Admittedly its not Morte Point, but it’s not hundreds of miles away.

I'd like to reprise Kenneth McConkey's suggestion of Hubert Wellington (1879–1967). There are seven of his paintings on Art UK and a selection with the dealer Louise Kosman, as Martin pointed out, including Kenneth’s example (as 'Milandrex, Cornwall').

Wellington sometimes added his monogram, a title and the date to the reverse, but this picture has been examined already (see comments from the collection at the top) so we can assume that's not the case here.

The copyright holder for Wellington is known to Art UK, so I'll try to reach them.

Jacob Simon,

This discussion began in 2018. It has answered the question as where is the landscape (see Pieter's post, 01/08/2020, and preceding posts).

That leaves the question of artist. We have considered and dismissed various candidates early in the discussion. For my part Marion's more recent ideas on Hubert Wellington in the preceding post carry a lot of weight. Not only is the handling of our painting very similar to the seven on Art UK (link above), they are all painted to Wellington's preferred size of 20 x 24 ins or 50.8 x 61.2 cm or in some cases just a little less. Modest but agreable paintings.

Could we go so far as to attribute the RA painting to this artist? We could then consider closing this productive discussion.

I think Susan Hill (01/08/2020 11:14) was right in strictly identifying the formal toponomy as Morte Point and Morte Bay (at Woolacombe, which is the name of the village). Woolacombe Beach is also strictly speaking correct for that but not 'Woolacombe Bay', albeit a common usage.

I agree the cautious attribution suggestion, which at worst sets it up in online search with other Wellingtons for future re-comparisons: 'unknown artist' goes nowhere useful.

Jacinto Regalado,

At a minimum, the picture should be listed under British School.

Martin Hopkinson,

There was an exhibition with a catalogue at Gloucester City Museum in 1968 [his home city] which might have included other West Country Coast scenes. He had a retrospective at Thomas Agnew in 1963. - worth checking this too.
He translated Francois Fosca 's monograph on Renoir and Fourreau's Berthe Morisot and wrote introductions to small books on William Rothenstein, Epstein and Gertler, and wrote introductions to selections from Delacroix's journal [republished by Phaidon in 1995 and to a publication on Epstein' s drawings
He also wrote on Gilman and Ginner.
He left a mark on Scottiish art as Principal of Edinburgh College of Art 1932-42
A search through the catalogues of the exhibitions of the Royal Academy might reveal this painting

Jacob Simon,

I had a look at RA summer exhibition catalogues online. He did not exhibit much and not this painting.

Lois Oliver (Curator, RA Collections) has replied that it would be appropriate to amend the title to include a reference to Morte Point, North Devon, and helpful to update Art UK with the suggested attribution to Hubert Lindsay Wellington, as this will encourage and assist future scholarship.