Photo credit: Museums & Galleries Edinburgh – City of Edinburgh Council
I expect that this is a depiction of Eve. Can anyone identify the sculptor of this nineteenth-century bronze at the City Art Centre, Edinburgh? There is no record of a signature.
Possibly William Reid Dick
Billy, many thanks for this suggestion. I had a moment of excitement when I found this at the NPG: not our sculpture, but a great portrait of the sculptor. https://bit.ly/3qGj3AP
This may certainly be latter 19th century, but it could also be early 20th. It has something of an Art Nouveau feel.
This piece is somewhat reminiscent of a 1911 bronze by Dick:
This "Eve" might be an early work by him, but I think it feels a little too French, and he had no French training.
Have you tried removing the sculpture from its base? There may be a signature or foundry mark at the base? The green patination on this piece looks very similar to a piece I have in my own collection dated 1914 of a mother and Child. There was a piece in sothebys last year titled "The Spinner" from 1926 which had a similar style to your sculpture.
This is purely speculative, because I have very little visual evidence to go on, but it might be worth looking into Ottilie Helen Wallace (née McLaren, 1875-1947), who studied in Paris, briefly with Camille Claudel and subsequently with Rodin. Reportedly most of her work is in private hands; there is only one piece on Art UK:
The attached is a news report from the Aberdeen Evening Express of Thursday 18th December 1975. It is a poignant reminder of the extraordinary range of reasons as to why and how certain artworks end up in public collections. It is extremely appropriate that his generosity should be recorded and remembered on the ArtUK site. Researchers with access to the probate records in Scotland might be able to find his will and any associated inventory of bronzes as listed therein.
Stewart's interest in art and sculpture must have been a life-long one as he is recorded has having lent a work entitled 'Zongleuse pyramid' by Demetre Chiparus, to the 1930 Exhibition of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture.
He also owned a copy of Sir Edgar Bertram MacKennal's 'Circe' (or 'Kipkh', as per its Greek spelling on the ArtUK site) (exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1894) and his 'Truth'. Both works, as bequeathed by Stewart, can be seen on ArtUK here:
Both of these pieces were also loaned for exhibition by Stewart as early as 1925.
Edgar Bertram MacKennal should be considered as he sculpted many allegorical and classical-themed pieces, especially in this format. A trawl of the RA's records will be undertaken for contending titles.
I saw those two pieces by MacKennal and considered him as a possibility, especially since they are in the same collection and came from the same source as our (purported) Eve, but they struck me as stiffer, harsher, more impersonal and academic, and less graceful, less natural. He bears further consideration, but I have my doubts.
I would have associated a snake at the bosom with images of Cleopatra rather than Eve. Is this lady waiting for the snake to speak or strike?
The woman may be in conversation with the serpent, and almost looks as if she's playing with it, which would fit Eve but not Cleopatra. Also, the latter is much less likely to be portrayed fully nude at the time of her suicide, and that is virtually never the case in paintings of the subject. Eve, however, is virtually always portrayed nude when "conversing" with the serpent.
Mackennal first came to my mind, but I rejected him as the cast is not precise enough - I came across Anne Acheson (1882–1962) and thought it may be by her - but cannot find a similar image. She would be worth checking out. We will all have to keep thinking.
Of the 71 pieces that MacKennal exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1896 and 1929 none is titled as to suggest a connection with this subject.
We need more visual data regarding the work of Ottilie Wallace, who was both Scottish (Edinburgh) and trained in Paris. However, if her work is largely in private (and presumably Scottish) hands, this may have to be a job for someone in Scotland.
Here is more on Ottilie Wallace, especially her exhibition history:
Here is an Eve, c. 1880, by Alexandre Falguière for comparison:
could be a version of the Cadmus and Harmonia story from Ovid where Cadmus asked the gods to turn him into a snake, and as he embraced his wife Harmonia she too was transformed. see eg Evelyn de Morgan's Harmonia
I was unaware of that myth, Jan, but it would fit here and must be considered. I wonder if this myth is more appealing to female artists, since some female sculptors are under consideration.
Here are two pictorial versions of the Cadmus and Harmonia story:
Ouch, forgive me Jan, I had not seen your attachment!
For what it's worth, Ottilie Wallace is known to have made a sculpture of Asteria, another relatively obscure mythological female figure. There must be someone in Scotland who knows more about her oeuvre.
Ottilie Wallace is briefly mentioned in an article about the 2015-16 show "Modern Scottish Women," curated by Alice Strang for the National Galleries of Scotland:
I suppose Strang might be interested in this discussion.
Also, does the collection have any potentially relevant information about the donor, Edgar Stewart of Kirkcaldy?
Jacinto, the attached should help answer your last question.
Thanks, Kieran. Unfortunately, it does not help much, except that he lived near Edinburgh and worked there, which may go with an Edinburgh-based sculptor.
The curator of the City Art Centre will check their records and the sculpture itself when she can get into the building, which is on occasional days. It may be a week or two, but this query has been added to her list and we will be updated when it has been checked - they would be delighted to get an attribution for this sculpture.
There are links below to two remarkable French sculpture resources. Those already interested in this subject will need no introduction to the work of Laure de Margerie and Laurent Noët. Aside from containing thousands of documented images of French sculpture and detailed threads of research on individual sculptors and their work, these websites contain an astonishing number of resources, including publications, exhibitions, a glossary, and information about the practice and techniques of sculpture in France.
The French Sculpture Census, initiated and directed by Laure de Margerie, who was senior archivist and Head of the Sculpture Archives at the Musee d'Orsay (1978–2009). https://frenchsculpture.org/
The blog of Laurent Noët, author and historian of nineteenth- and twentieth-century sculpture in Marseille. http://marseillesculptee2.blogspot.com/
I’m very grateful to Linda Whiteley, Faculty Member and research associate of the Department of the History of Art at Oxford, for putting me in touch with Laure de Margerie following the recent closure of the discussion on Gertrude Devenish Walshe. Laure has very kindly sent us the page from Pierre Sanchez’s 2010 dictionary, which confirms the attribution and offers further leads to the sitter that are being followed up in France.
Immense thanks to all followers of Art Detective for all the contributions and successful outcomes, especially in 2020, with so many resources now inaccessible.
Marion, are we missing a link you meant to provide?
Jacinto, both links are in the text above.
Sorry, Marion, perhaps I misunderstood or I am being rather dense, but I cannot find "the page from Pierre Sanchez’s 2010 dictionary, which confirms the attribution and offers further leads to the sitter that are being followed up in France."
Jacinto, it makes no sense to attach the page about the Devenish Walshe exhibit to this thread, where it would be lost to future research, but I wanted to let you all know that I have it so that no one else keeps looking.
It will be available in an appropriate place on the website as soon as possible, whether that's a new discussion about the sitter in 'Lilas blanc' (which we now know it is) or simply an edited conclusion to the existing discussion.
I'd like to thank Dr Helen Scott, Curator (Fine Art) at the collection for checking the sculpture and their files.
There was no visible foundry mark. It's possible that the mark is underneath the base, but the sculpture is very firmly affixed to the marble plinth, with no easy way of detaching it.
In the records, the only relevant item found was correspondence from 1975 in which the then curator wrote to the director recommending the acquisition of the sculpture into the collection, after it was offered as part of a bequest from Edgar Stewart, a resident of Kirkcaldy. Four bronze sculptures were accepted from this bequest, including two by Bertram Mackennal and one by Pilkington Jackson. However, the nude with a serpent was listed at this point as being by an unknown artist.
It is very helpful that those avenues have now been checked.
Bertram Mackennal exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1886 to 1904, including three bronze statuettes like ours:
A priestess (1896, No. 1870)
Daphne (1897, No. 2039)
Salome (1897, No. 2053)
Ours is not Apollo's Daphne or Salome, and a priestess seems unlikely to be fully nude. None of his other RA works fit ours.
Mackennal is on Art UK here: https://artuk.org/discover/artists/mackennal-edgar-bertram-18631931
And he had a retrospective in 2007/8 which produced a catalogue raisonné: http://www.victorianweb.org/sculpture/mackennal/monograph.html
Edgar Stewart resided at 43 High Street, Kirkcaldy. Also resident at the same address was Isaac L. Stewart (father?) who owned a painting of the Coronation of King Edward by Robert Gemmell Hutchison. In his will, Isaac instructed his Trustees to give the painting to the Kirkcaldy Town Council, which may have found its way into the art gallery. Possibly this copy:
This might help with regard to tracking the provenance. Did Isaac L. Stewart lend any bronzes to the RSA, which Edgar inherited unlike the coronation painting?
This could be Lilith, a popular fin de siècle subject who would certainly be on friendly terms with the snake. It is not Albert Toft's 1889 bronze Lilith (of which I have seen a drawing, and also involves a snake) nor Alfred Drury's 1916 marble Lilith, but it may perhaps be Drury's 1913 bronze Lilith statuette (Royal Academy No. 2012) if that was different from his 1916 version. In the 1913 RA catalogue, the listing was accompanied by these lines, referring to the snake:
"Lend thy shape for the love of Lilith.
In Thy shape, I'll go back to Eden.
Then Eve shall eat and give unto Adam."
Here is Drury's 1916 Lilith:
Here is Drury's Circe:
A drawing of Toft's Lilith appeared in the 1889 Academy Notes , page 100. If my link works, scroll up a little to see the drawing:
has Jolyon Drury been shown this?
Martin, I've sent a message to Jolyon Drury via the Art Workers' Guild.
Jolyon Drury does not think that this is by his grandfather, Alfred Drury RA, but stressed that his opinion is based only on the available photograph.
He added, ‘The sculpture might be by Bertram Mackennal (others have thought so) - his Circe that I have seen at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney has similar outstretched hands and neat feet (mercifully no pigs unlike my grandfather’s sculpture of Circe at Leeds). Mackennal, although Australian, was of Scottish descent (so possible gift to Edinburgh) and after a false start at the Academy Schools in London went to Paris in 1882 (at the same time that my grandfather was there working as Aime-Jules Dalou’s pratician) and after a pretty bumpy period returned to Paris in 1891 where next year he was awarded an honourable mention at the Petit Salon for his life sized Circe. In 1893 he worked with Rhind in Edinburgh before returning to London to exhibit Circe at the RA. So it might be possible that Mackennal modelled a Circe lookalike with the snake when Rhind’s pratician. Or not. The plot thickens.’
Kieran Owens and Jacinto Regalado had both considered Mackennal (3/10/19). Peter Nahum (04/10/19) commented that Mackennal first came to his mind, but he rejected him as the cast was not precise enough. It does not correspond to any of Mackennal’s RA titles, but could it have been made during his brief spell as an assistant to William Birnie Rhind?
MacKennal is still a possibility, certainly in terms of subject matter. He did two other femme fatale subjects, Circe and Salome, so a Lilith would have been perfectly predictable. This statuette is about the same size as the statuette of his Circe in the same collection, and has the same provenance.
I wonder if this piece once had (or was supposed to have) a bronze base like other MacKennal statuettes on Art UK (Circe, Salome and Truth), which is where the signature would have been placed. The marble support here looks somewhat like an afterthought. See below for comparison (including image #9):
Neither Phyllida Shaw, nor Dr Pauline Rose recognises this work. Pauline suggested asking Alice Strang (whom Jacinto mentioned, 28/10/20), although I believe she may already be aware of this discussion.
Alice Strang will have a think and forward it to other sculpture specialists as well.