(b Schrobenhausen, Bavaria, 13 Dec. 1836; d Munich, 6 May 1904). German painter, active mainly in Munich but also in Italy, Vienna, and elsewhere. He painted various subjects, but is remembered chiefly as the most successful German portraitist of his day. His rich Venetian technique combined with his solid, respectful characterization appealed greatly to the prosperous ruling classes of Germany. He painted about a hundred portraits of Bismarck, whom he first met in 1878 and with whom he had a reserved friendship.
Text source: The Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists (Oxford University Press)